Global resources are limited and mindless use of them will finally lead to a scarcity. The need of the hour is to find the alternative energy resources which are abundant in nature and which deviate us from using fossils fuels. Solar Energy has gained a significant popularity in the past few decades as it is clean, meaning it does not release greenhouse gases and other harmful pollutants. It is also an abundant source of energy as it is available till the existence of the planet. Unlike fossil fuels, which are finite and cannot be replenished for thousands of years. Another drawback of fossil fuels is that they emit greenhouse gases and contribute to global climate change. Solar energy is an important technology for many reasons and has become a popular topic as many scientists around the world are working to increase the photo-electron conversion efficiency with minimum production cost. Diversified approaches have been undertaken to enhance the efficiency of solar cell. This paper will review the current state of art on photovoltaic cells (PVCs) in context to the materials used for fabrication, their possible cost and their working efficiency. This paper will also undertake the challenges that came across during the whole process and their possible solutions.