Abstract: Due to the complexity of the design of multilayer electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing materials, it is difficult to establish the relationship between material parameters (type and filling ratios) and EM properties using traditional trial and error methods. Based on the measured EM parameters within a few materials and Boltzmann mixing theory, a database of EM parameters was thereafter built up. In this study, the genetic algorithm (GA) was used to design the multilayer wave-absorbing cement mortar. In order to verify this method, a multilayer mortar was fabricated and measured. The simulated and measured results are well consistent, which convincingly verifies computer-aided design. In addition, the optimized result expresses that the first layer as a matching layer guides EM waves into the interior of the material, while the other layers as absorption layers attenuate EM waves. The multilayer material may not meet the impedance gradient principle but still exhibits better EM wave absorption performance. The reflection loss (RL) of all optimized three layer sample is below –6.89 dB in the full frequency band and the minimum RL is –26.21 dB. This composite absorbing material and the GA method provide more design ideas for the design of future cement-based wave-absorbing materials and save a lot of time and material cost.