Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer


Vol. 10 (2023)

Optimization with a Genetic Algorithm for Multilayer Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Cement Mortar Filled with Expended Perlite

May 4, 2023


Abstract: Due to the complexity of the design of multilayer electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbing materials, it is difficult to establish the relationship between material parameters (type and filling ratios) and EM properties using traditional trial and error methods. Based on the measured EM parameters within a few materials and Boltzmann mixing theory, a database of EM parameters was thereafter built up. In this study, the genetic algorithm (GA) was used to design the multilayer wave-absorbing cement mortar. In order to verify this method, a multilayer mortar was fabricated and measured. The simulated and measured results are well consistent, which convincingly verifies computer-aided design. In addition, the optimized result expresses that the first layer as a matching layer guides EM waves into the interior of the material, while the other layers as absorption layers attenuate EM waves. The multilayer material may not meet the impedance gradient principle but still exhibits better EM wave absorption performance. The reflection loss (RL) of all optimized three layer sample is below –6.89 dB in the full frequency band and the minimum RL is –26.21 dB. This composite absorbing material and the GA method provide more design ideas for the design of future cement-based wave-absorbing materials and save a lot of time and material cost.


  1. Micheli D, Vricella A, Pastore R, et al. Synthesis and electromagnetic characterization of frequency selective radar absorbing materials using carbon nanopowders. Carbon 2014; 77: 756-74.
  2. Hou W, Liao Q, Wu M, et al. High-performance pinecone-like MOF derivative electromagnetic wave-absorbing composite via in situ anisotropic-oriented growth. J Alloy. Compd. 2023; 937: 168283.
  3. Elmas O. Effects of electromagnetic field exposure on the heart:a systematic review. Toxicol. Ind. Health 2016; 32: 76-82.
  4. Sharma A, Kumar R, Gupta A, et al. Enhanced electromagnetic interference shielding properties of phenolic resin derived lightweight carbon foam decorated with electrospun zinc oxide nanofibers. Mater. Today. Commun. 2022; 30: 103055.
  5. Shu R, Xu J, Wan Z, et al. Synthesis of hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide/zinc ferrite composite foams as ultrathin and broadband microwave absorbers. J Colloid Interf. Sci. 2022; 608: 2994-3003.
  6. Stefaniuk D, Sobótka M, Jarczewska K, et al. Microstructure properties of cementitious mortars with selected additives for electromagnetic waves absorbing applications. Cem. Concr. Compos. 2022; 104732.
  7. Li Z, Hou X, Ke Y, et al. Topology optimization with a genetic algorithm for the structural design of composite porous acoustic materials. Appl. Acoust. 2022; 197: 108917.
  8. Guan Z-J, Li R, Jiang J-T, et al. Data mining and design of electromagnetic properties of Co/FeSi filled coatings based on genetic algorithms optimized artificial neural networks (GA-ANN). Compos. Part B: Eng. 2021; 226: 109383.
  9. Jang M-S, Jang W-H, Jin D-H, et al. Circuit-analog radar absorbing structures using a periodic pattern etched on Ni-coated glass fabric. Compos. Struct. 2022; 281: 115099.
  10. Chamaani S, Mirtaheri SA, Shooredeli MA. Design of very thin wide band absorbers using modified local best particle swarm optimization. AEU - Int. J. Electron. C. 2008; 62: 549-56.
  11. Qi H, Wang DL, Wang SG, et al. Inverse transient radiation analysis in one-dimensional non-homogeneous participating slabs using particle swarm optimization algorithms. J Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 2011; 112: 2507-19.
  12. Micheli D, Pastore R, Gradoni G, et al. Reduction of satellite electromagnetic scattering by carbon nanostructured multilayers. Acta Astronaut. 2013; 88: 61-73.
  13. Cheraghi A, Malekfar R, Moemen Bellah S, et al. ISO-MANM: An imitation based optimization tool for multilayer microwave absorbers. J Mol. Graph. Model. 2017; 72: 16-24.
  14. Micheli D, Apollo C, Pastore R, et al., Electromagnetic Characterization of Composite Materials and Microwave Absorbing Modeling. 2011.
  15. Yildizel SA, Toktas A. ABC algorithm-based optimization and evaluation of nano carbon black added multi-layer microwave absorbing ultra weight foam concrete. Mater. Today. Commun. 2022; 32: 104035.
  16. Micheli D, Apollo C, Pastore R, et al. Nanostructured composite materials for electromagnetic interference shielding applications. Acta Astronaut. 2011; 69: 747-57.
  17. Kasgoz A, Korkmaz M, Durmus A. Compositional and structural design of thermoplastic polyurethane/carbon based single and multi-layer composite sheets for high-performance X-band microwave absorbing applications. Polymer 2019; 180: 121672.
  18. Salayong K, Lertwiriyaprapa T, Torrungrueng D, et al. Electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of carbon black-filled natural rubber latex. Mater. Today: Proceedings 2022; 52: 2444-8.
  19. Cao M, Zhu J, Yuan J, et al. Computation design and performance prediction towards a multi-layer microwave absorber. Mater. Design. 2002; 23: 557-64.
  20. Choi J, Jung H-T. A new triple-layered composite for high-performance broadband microwave absorption. Compos. Struct. 2015; 122: 166-71.
  21. Zhang X, Sun W. Three-layer microwave absorber using cement-based composites. Mag. Concr. Res. 2011; 63: 157-62.
  22. Eun S-W, Choi W-H, Jang H-K, et al. Effect of delamination on the electromagnetic wave absorbing performance of radar absorbing structures. Compos. Sci. Technol. 2015; 116: 18-25.
  23. Wang Z, Wang Z, Ning M. Optimization of electromagnetic wave absorption bandwidth of cement-based composites with doped expanded perlite. Constr. Build. Mater. 2020; 259: 119863.
  24. Jang D, Choi BH, Yoon HN, et al. Improved electromagnetic wave shielding capability of carbonyl iron powder-embedded lightweight CFRP composites. Compos. Struct. 2022; 286: 115326.
  25. Negi P, Gupta A, Singh M, et al. Excellent microwave absorbing and electromagnetic shielding performance of grown MWCNT on activated carbon bifunctional composite. Carbon 2022; 198: 151-61.
  26. Wang H, Zhang Y, Wang Q, et al. Biomass carbon derived from pine nut shells decorated with NiO nanoflakes for enhanced microwave absorption properties. RSC Advances 2019; 9: 9126-35.
  27. Ciuchi IV, Olariu CS, Mitoseriu L. Determination of bone mineral volume fraction using impedance analysis and Bruggeman model. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2013; 178: 1296-302.
  28. Zhai Y, Zhang Y, Ren W. Electromagnetic characteristic and microwave absorbing performance of different carbon-based hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber composites. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2012; 133: 176-81.
  29. Guihard V, Patapy C, Sanahuja J, et al. Effective medium theories in electromagnetism for the prediction of water content in cement pastes. Int. J. Eng. Sci. 2020; 150: 103273.
  30. Sihvola AH, Alanen E. Studies of mixing formulae in the complex plane. IEEE T. Geosci. Remote. 1991; 29: 679-87.
  31. Xia L, Feng Y, Zhao B. Intrinsic mechanism and multiphysics analysis of electromagnetic wave absorbing materials: New horizons and breakthrough. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 2022; 130: 136-56.
  32. Guan Z-J, Jiang J-T, Yan S-J, et al. Sandwich-like cobalt/reduced graphene oxide/cobalt composite structure presenting synergetic electromagnetic loss effect. J Colloid Interf. Sci. 2020; 561: 687-95.
  33. Zhang X, Sun W. Microwave absorbing properties of double-layer cementitious composites containing Mn-Zn ferrite. Cem. Concr. Compos. 2010; 32: 726-30.
  34. Misra PK, Chapter 12 - Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism. in: Misra PK (Ed)Phys. Condens. Matter.Academic Press, Boston, 2012, pp. 369-407.
  35. Xie S, Ma C, Ji Z, et al. Electromagnetic wave absorption and heat storage dual-functional cement composites incorporated with carbon nanotubes and phase change microcapsule. J Build. Eng. 2023; 67: 105925.
  36. Liu J, Wang G, Liu C, et al. Novel lightweight and efficient electromagnetic waves absorbing performance of biomass porous carbon/polymer-derived composite ceramics. Ceramics International 2023; 49: 13742-51.
  37. Zhang H, Ji H, Dai G, et al. Nanoarchitectonics of integrated impedance gradient MXene/PPy/polyester composite fabric for enhanced microwave absorption performances. Compos. Part A: Appl. S. 2022; 163: 107163.
  38. Pan J, Li X, Xia W, et al. Improveament of multiple attenuation and optimized impedance gradient for excellent multilayer microwave absorbers derived from two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks. Chem. Eng. J 2023; 452: 139601.