Abstract: The horizontal machine tool has an automatic exchange table, which can be combined with a flexible manufacturing system for automatic processing and production. Therefore, it requires higher performance stability than other machines. This study analyzes the static and dynamic characteristics of a horizontal machine tool structure. The finite element analysis (FEA) method is generally used to analyze the whole machine structure and improve the deformation and resonance of the horizontal machine tool. In this study, FEA was applied to the design process of the machine tool, including static deformation analysis, modal analysis, transient analysis, and harmonic analysis of the machine. The deformation of the whole machine due to acceleration of gravity and cutting force was analyzed. The modal shapes generated by the first and third modes directly affected the machining process of the machine tool. To further analyze the influence of vibration signal processing on processing quality, transient response analysis was carried out on the effect of axial cutting force during machining. Spectrum analysis of the machine was also carried out. This study is expected to help the structural design of a horizontal machine tool to improve the dynamic characteristics and stability of the horizontal machining system.